WISC-III NL: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised

De WISC-III NL (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) bestaat uit twaalf onderdelen: zes verbale of mondelinge en zes performale of praktische subtests, die hieronder beschreven worden.

* Informatie: vragen die een beroep doen op de algemene kennis.
* Overeenkomsten: gevraagd wordt de overeenkomst tussen steeds twee zaken te noemen.
* Rekenopgaven :mondeling aangeboden rekenvraagstukjes uit het hoofd oplossen.
* Woordenschat: de betekenis van allerlei woorden mondeling weergeven.
* Begrijpen: vragen over allerlei sociale- en maatschappelijke situaties.
* Cijferreeksen: rijtjes cijfers nazeggen, eerst vooruit, dan achterstevoren.
* Onvolledige tekeningen: ontbrekende details op plaatjes ontdekken.
* Plaatjes ordenen: plaatjes in de goede volgorde leggen, zodat het verhaaltje klopt.
* Blokpatronen: mozaïekpatronen naleggen door middel van blokken
* Figuur leggen: legpuzzels maken
* Substitutie: de ene schriftelijke code in de andere omzetten, naar een voorbeeld
* Doolhoven: met een potlood in doolhoven, de weg naar de uitgang aangeven.

Met behulp van de standaardscores per subtest wordt een "intelligentieprofiel' samengesteld. Zo worden de relatief sterke en zwakke cognitieve vaardigheden zichtbaar. De gemiddelde standaardscore per subtest is 10 met een 'normale' spreiding van 1 punten daarboven en daaronder. Bij de scores tussen 9 en 11 spreken we dus van een gemiddelde, normale score ten opzichte van de eigen leeftijdsgroep. 12 en 13 en hoger is bovengemiddeld en 7 en 8 en lager zijn beneden gemiddeld
Er worden verschillende IQ's berekend: een totaal IQ (TIQ) een totaal verbaal IQ (TVIQ) en een totaal-performaal IQ (TPIQ) Een IQ van 100 is gemiddeld, met een speling van 15 punten daarboven en daaronder. Een IQ>115 beschouwt men als bovengemiddeld, bij een IQ < 85 spreken we van benedengemiddeld. Bij een IQ>130 wordt iemand hoogintelligent of hoogbegaafd genoemd (al naargelang de filosofie achter de begripsdefiniëring)

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - III

by Lizette Campbell (Child and Educational Psychologist) |

The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III) is a battery of tests for 6 to 17 year olds that evaluates intellectual abilities. The WISC-III consists of two scales, the Verbal Scale and the Performance Scale. Each of these scales has several subtests.

The Verbal Scale measures language expression, comprehension, listening, and the ability to apply these skills to solving problems. The examiner gives the questions orally, and the child gives a spoken response. The Performance Scale assesses nonverbal problem solving, perceptual organisation, speed, and visual-motor proficiency. Included are tasks like puzzles, analysis of pictures, imitating designs with blocks, and copying.

Several scores are obtained from the WISC-III. Scale scores (Verbal and Performance IQ scores) are the summary measures of verbal and performance skills, and the Full Scale IQ is an index of general intellectual functioning.

Factor scores and subtest combinations show other indices of cognitive ability. These scores may provide additional hypotheses about learning style and factors underlying scores on the WISC-III. Scale, factor, and subtest scores show strengths and weaknesses when compared to other young people of the same age or to the student's own pattern of development.

A typicial report summary may look like:

IQ Scale / Index

IQ Scale Score

Percentile

Confidence Interval

Range

Verbal IQ

 

 

 

 

Performance IQ

 

 

 

 

Full Scale IQ

 

 

 

 

Verbal Comprehension Index

 

 

 

 

Perceptual Organisation Index

 

 

 

 

Freedom From Distractibility Index

 

 

 

 

Processing Speed Index

 

 

 

 

Test scores change over time due to chance, error, and many other factors. A Percentile rank expresses the relative position of a score. For example, a percentile rank of 98 means that a child has scored as well as or better than 98% of students of the same age on that subtest. The confidence interval indicates the probable range of scores which can be expected when this individual is retested. Subtest scaled scores (listed below) range from 1 to 19.

 

Scaled Score

%ile Rank

Description

Verbal Subtests

 

 

 

Information

 

 

General factual knowledge, long term memory

Similarities

 

 

Abstract reasoning, categories, relationships

Arithmetic

 

 

Attention, concentration, numerical reasoning

Vocabulary

 

 

Word knowledge, verbal fluency

Comprehension

 

 

Social judgement, common sense reasoning

Digit Span

 

 

Short term auditory memory, concentration

Performance Subtests

 

 

 

Picture Completion

 

 

Alertness to essential detail

Coding

 

 

Visual motor co-ordination, speed, concentration

Picture Arrangement

 

 

Sequential, logical thinking

Block Design

 

 

Spatial, abstract visual problem solving

Object Assembly

 

 

Visual analysis, construction of objects

Symbol Search

 

 

Speed of processing novel information

Mazes

 

 

Fine motor co-ordination, planning, following directions

Intelligence tests like this one are samples of problem solving abilities and learned facts, and are good predictors of future learning and academic success. However, there are several factors that the tests do not measure. For instance, they cannot determine motivation, curiosity, creative talent, work habits, study skills, or achievement in academic subjects. These should also be considered when interpreting the scores in this report.

Disclaimer:

The information provided is intended to give parents an overview of the Wechsler Scales and how they are used to assess children. The Wechsler tests form one part of an assessment, and other measures may include an early developmental history, formal and informal observation of the child, academic skills testing, measures of personality, emotional and social development, examination of the child's creative and school interests and so on.

It is important to discuss any questions relating to your child's assessment with the psychologist who performs the assessment as they can put the test results and observed behaviours into context with their knowledge of the different tests and of child development. It is also important to realise that, as every child is unique, there cannot be a "recipe" type approach to interpreting their scores or results. This is particularly true of isolating one or two subtest scores.