Raven: The Standard Progressive (SPM)
Time: (45) minutes.
Author: J.C. Raven.
Publisher: U.S. Distributor: The Psychological Corporation.
Description: The Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) was designed to measure a personís ability to form perceptual relations and to reason by analogy independent of language and formal schooling, and may be used with persons ranging in age from 6 years to adult. It is the first and most widely used of three instruments known as the Raven's Progressive Matrices, the other two being the Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and the Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM). All three tests are measures of Spearman's g.
Scoring: The SPM consists of 60 items arranged in five sets (A, B, C, D, & E) of 12 items each. Each item contains a figure with a missing piece. Below the figure are either six (sets A & B) or eight (sets C through E) alternative pieces to complete the figure, only one of which is correct. Each set involves a different principle or "theme" for obtaining the missing piece, and within a set the items are roughly arranged in increasing order of difficulty. The raw score is typically converted to a percentile rank by using the appropriate norms.
Reliability: Internal consistency studies using either the split-half method corrected for length or KR20 estimates result in values ranging from .60 to .98, with a median of .90. Test-retest correlations range from a low of .46 for an eleven-year interval to a high of .97 for a two-day interval. The median test-retest value is approximately .82. Coefficients close to this median value have been obtained with time intervals of a week to several weeks, with longer intervals associated with smaller values. Raven provided test-retest coefficients for several age groups: .88 (13 yrs. plus), .93 (under 30 yrs.), .88 (30-39 yrs.), .87 (40-49 yrs.), .83 (50 yrs. and over).
Validity: Spearman considered the SPM to be the best measure of g. When evaluated by factor analytic methods which were used to define g initially, the SPM comes as close to measuring it as one might expect. The majority of studies which have factor analyzed the SPM along with other cognitive measures in Western cultures report loadings higher than .75 on a general factor. Concurrent validity coefficients between the SPM and the Stanford-Binet and Weschler scales range between .54 and .88, with the majority in the .70s and .80s.
Norms: Norm groups included in the manual are: British children between the ages of 6 and 16; Irish children between the ages of 6 and 12; military and civilian subjects between the ages of 20 and 65. A supplement includes norms from Canada, the United States, and Germany.
Suggested Uses: Recommended uses include measurement of a personís ability to form perceptual relations and reason by analogy in research settings.